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  • Nyholm SV, Graf J. 2012. Knowing your friends: invertebrate innate immunity fosters beneficial bacterial symbioses. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 10(12):815-27 (PMC3870473)
  • Bomar L, Graf J. 2012. Investigation into the physiologies of Aeromonas veronii in vitro and inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech using RNA-seq. Biol. Bull. 223(1):155-66 (PMC3732745)
  • Nelson MC, Graf J. 2012. Bacterial symbioses of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana. Gut Microbes 3(4):322-31 (PMC3463490)



  • Maltz M, Graf J. 2010. The type II secretion system is essential for erythrocyte lysis and gut colonization by the leech digestive tract symbiont Aeromonas veronii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(2):597-603 (PMC3020562)



  • Laufer AS, Siddall ME, Graf J. 2008. Characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis, a european medicinal leech. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(19):6151-4 (PMC2565982)
  • Yu R, Graf J, Smets BF. 2008. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments. J. Microbiol. Methods 72(3):235-40


  • Silver AC, Rabinowitz NM, Küffer S, Graf J. 2007. Identification of Aeromonas veronii genes required for colonization of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. J. Bacteriol. 189(19):6763-72 (PMC2045196)
  • Rio RV, Anderegg M, Graf J. 2007. Characterization of a catalase gene from Aeromonas veronii, the digestive-tract symbiont of the medicinal leech. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 153(Pt 6):1897-906
  • Silver AC, Kikuchi Y, Fadl AA, Sha J, Chopra AK, Graf J. 2007. Interaction between innate immune cells and a bacterial type III secretion system in mutualistic and pathogenic associations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22):9481-6 (PMC1890520)
  • Kikuchi Y, Graf J. 2007. Spatial and temporal population dynamics of a naturally occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(6):1984-91 (PMC1828818)
  • Siddall ME, Worthen PL, Johnson M, Graf J. 2007. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(2):655-8 (PMC1796983)




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